Epilepsy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Frist Aid
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Epilepsy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Frist Aid

Home > Blog > Epilepsy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Frist Aid

Epilepsy: Causes,  Symptoms, Treatment & Frist Aid

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the brain. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are episodes of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Seizures can cause a variety of symptoms, including loss of consciousness, muscle jerking, and sensory disturbances.

What are the different types of seizures?

There are two main types of seizures:

  • Focal Seizures
  • Generalized Seizures

Focal Seizures: Focal seizures begin in one area of the brain, while generalized seizures start in both hemispheres of the brain.

Focal seizures are further classified into two types: aware and impaired awareness. Aware focal seizures allow the person to remain conscious and aware of their surroundings during the seizure. Impaired awareness focal seizures cause the person to lose consciousness or become partially aware of their surroundings.

Generalized Seizures: Generalized seizures are further classified into six types:

  • Absence seizures: These seizures are characterized by brief lapses in consciousness, typically lasting only a few seconds.
  • Myoclonic seizures: These seizures are characterized by sudden, brief muscle jerks.
  • Clonic seizures: These seizures are characterized by rhythmic muscle contractions.
  • Tonic seizures: These seizures are characterized by muscle stiffness.
  • Atonic seizures: These seizures are characterized by a sudden loss of muscle tone, causing the person to collapse.
  • Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are the most common type of generalized seizure. They are characterized by a loss of consciousness, followed by muscle stiffening and jerking.

What are the causes of epilepsy?

There are many different causes of epilepsy, including:

Head injury: Head injury can damage the brain and increase the risk of developing epilepsy.

Brain tumours: Brain tumours can put pressure on the brain and cause seizures.

Stroke: Stroke can damage the brain and increase the risk of developing epilepsy.

Infections: Infections such as meningitis and encephalitis can damage the brain and cause seizures.

Genetic factors: Epilepsy can run in families, suggesting that there is a genetic component to the disorder.

Developmental disorders: Developmental disorders such as autism and cerebral palsy are associated with an increased risk of developing epilepsy.

How is epilepsy diagnosed?

The diagnosis of epilepsy is based on a medical history, physical examination, and neurological evaluation. The doctor may also order tests such as an EEG (electroencephalogram), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or CT scan (computed tomography scan).

How is epilepsy treated?

The goal of treatment for epilepsy is to control seizures and improve the person's quality of life. There are many different types of Epilepsey treatments in Bangalore, including medications, surgery, and dietary changes.

Medications: Anti-seizure medications are the most common treatment for epilepsy. These medications work by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. There are many different types of anti-seizure medications available, and the doctor may need to try different medications or combinations of medications to find the best treatment for each individual.

Surgery: Surgery may be an option for people with epilepsy who are not responding well to medications. Epilepsy surgery involves removing the part of the brain where the seizures are originating. Epilepsy surgery can be very effective in controlling seizures, but it is important to weigh the risks and benefits of surgery before planning.

Dietary Changes: Some people with epilepsy may benefit from dietary changes, such as the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been shown to reduce seizures in some people with epilepsy.

Living with epilepsy: People with epilepsy can live full and productive lives. With proper treatment, most people with epilepsy can control their seizures and participate in all the activities that they enjoy.

Here are some tips for living with epilepsy:

Take your medications as prescribed by your doctor.

  • Get enough sleep.
  • Avoid stress and triggers.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Be aware of the signs and symptoms of seizures.
  • Have a plan in place in case of a seizure.
  • If you have epilepsy, it is important to work with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that is right for you. With proper treatment for epilepsy , most people with epilepsy can live full and active lives.

First Aid for Epilepsy

If you are present when someone is having a seizure, knowing how to provide proper first aid can be incredibly helpful. Here are the steps to follow:

Stay Calm: It's essential to remain calm and reassure others around you. Most seizures are short-lived and not life-threatening.

Ensure Safety: Clear the area around the person to prevent injury. Remove sharp objects or anything that could be harmful.

Cushion Their Head: Place a soft object, like a folded jacket or pillow, under the person's head to protect them from head injuries.

Turn Them on Their Side: Gently turn the person onto their side to help clear the airway and prevent choking in case of vomiting.

Time the Seizure: It's important to keep track of the seizure's duration. Seizures lasting longer than five minutes or recurring without regaining consciousness between them may require immediate medical attention.

Do Not Restrain: Do not hold the person down or try to stop their movements. It won't stop the seizure and may lead to injury.

After the Seizure: Once the seizure ends, the person may be confused or disoriented. Offer support and reassurance as they regain consciousness.

Seek Medical Attention: If it's the person's first seizure, or if the seizure lasts longer than five minutes, call for ambulance or seek immediate medical attention.

It's important to note that not all seizures are epilepsy-related. Some seizures can be provoked by specific triggers, such as extreme stress, low blood sugar, or high fever, and may not require long-term epilepsy management.

Epilepsy, a complex neurological disorder, can be effectively managed with the right treatment. If you or a loved one is affected by epilepsy, numerous resources are at your disposal. Consult your physician to explore the most suitable treatment options tailored to your specific requirements. For expert guidance, consider reaching out to Kauvery Hospital, where you'll find the Best neurologists in Bangalore, dedicated to your well-being.

Authored By: Dr. Soniya Tambe
Consultant - Neurology


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